With the governments worrying about foreign companies spying on their citizens and the phenomena of Splinternet taking over the world, it can be argued that there is not much scope of multilateral governance left in these two areas and is almost non existential. Data sovereignty as practiced by the local governments would take precedence in the name of national security and the internet as we have it right now, would stand divided which necessarily might not be a bad thing unless the entire world decides to follow an iron veil policy with regards to the internet like China and Russia in order to police their citizens.
A splinter is a fragment of a more massive object, and a splinternet is a fragmented internet. Fragmentation depends on multiple reasons. Cyberbalkanization is a synonymous term that is a hybrid of the internet and the Balkans, a part of Europe that was historically subdivided by languages, religions, and cultures. It could be a threat to democracy because it displays controlled information to the users and presents information based on criteria like government policies and business motives.
This reality is starker in the context of China and Russia, who are the most prominent internet disruptors. This was not legally binding, the motion passed with consensus, and therefore the UN was provided limited power to endorse an open internet system.
By selectively applying pressure on governments who are not compliant, the. UN can now enforce digital human rights standards through transparent monitoring and ranking the countries on that basis and aligning more towards internet companies to access the vast information they have. Thus, the web is not worldwide anymore, and it will never be. Splinternet is the result of national governments extending their rule to cyberspace.
The next-generation mobile network standard 5G would allow a large amount of data transfer with minimum lag. It would enable faster and reliable digital communication and video conferencing facilities in the remotest corner of the globe. For, the internet shall not be regulated, and must not be discriminatory. Internet surveillance and internet censorship shall not be present.
More so when facing opposition on social media, which remains the only avenue of protest amidst the present COVID pandemic. Nations that have gone the furthest to isolate their national internets from the international internet are in a far better position to survive all-out cyberwar than the countries like the US that are naively pushing for a single global internet.
Thus, the Splinternet shall be accepted as a reality, and along with the apprehensions it poses, the focus should lie on how it can be productively used for better governance. Countries differ in morality and the sense of right and wrong. An easy example could be the difference between censorship laws in a conservative and liberal government. Splinternet can protect and promote national interest and restrict the anti- social views and say fake news on the internet.
However, the biggest challenge lies in who shall have the responsibility and the authority to do that. The tech giants are aiming at IoT for a better future and the benefit and advancement of the people and their lifestyle. With this, the world is heading toward 5G connectivity, where predictions are such that 5G will offer up to x times faster internet speed compared to 4G and will advance the digital front keeping it costefficient.
But, surprisingly in the era of the 5G network, the world is adapting the concept of splinternet. Splinternet is splitting the internet into different regions or nations. When the government of that particular country bans the apps and websites either for their political profit or for national security. India banning apps recently for national security, is one of the best examples of Splinternet. Last year China issued two new censorship rules, identifying new categories of banned content and implementing mandatory reviews of all content posted on short video platforms.
If information cannot be exchanged easily between different networks, we have to go back to paperwork and print and input into the system, which will defeat the essence of the internet. Earlier last year Russia announced a plan to disconnect the entire country from the internet to simulate an all-out cyberwar. Slowly and gradually, every country is engaging in substantial politically-motivated filtering.
The results of the splinternet and digital authoritarianism stretch a long way beyond the population of these individual nations. As the web turns out to be more splintered and data more controlled over the globe, we risk the decay of equitable frameworks, the defilement of free business sectors, and further digital deception crusades. A new set of global guidelines is genuinely necessary which must be formed with the advantages of receptiveness with the desire to ensure online platform working in a public stage.
The idea of the free and open web is both a worth, similar to basic liberties of human rights and commodities. A political settlement should be arranged between countries and a memorandum of understanding must be signed between them stating the free flow of the internet to the citizen. An international organization must be set up to ensure low barrier internet and the memorandum signed between the countries is followed. With the assistance of western internet organizations track must be kept on every administration's endeavours towards oversight creep and government overreach.
Like other ranking lists, countries must be ranked on their achievement for a free flow of the internet. This might create a sense of allowing all citizens full information and save the distortion of the 'World Wide Web'. The borderless nature of the Internet has enabled the development of the digital economy and revolutionary technical innovations. It has become easy for companies large and small to achieve a global reach. However, in the wake of the Edward Snowden whistle-blowing leaks that revealed mass foreign surveillance wiretaps of the Internet, a number of governments are considering implementing data localisation laws.
In practice, data localisation laws are highly likely to fragment the Internet resulting in inefficiencies and greater costs. Many recent technological advances may be affected or impeded by such laws. The US was in favour of a global internet infrastructure but recently it is following the path of China to enhance their splinternet policies.
Apple challenged all or part of 12 of these requests, and ended up making apps unavailable in several countries. The company does not specify which applications were removed, but provides some details on the reasons alleged, ranging from dissemination of illegal content to gambling, violation of privacy laws or operating outside government policies.
Many of these requests. Increasingly, national sovereignty is the main restriction to the scope of a truly global internet, meaning we now face a future of regional networks. This is merely a symptom of much more serious problems, such as the impossibility of global solutions to the pandemic or more serious issues such as the climate emergency.
Supranational institutions and treaties such as the World Health Organization, the United Nations or the Paris Agreement see their role, their operations and their commitments progressively restricted, while governments give much more importance to holding on to power. If data localisation becomes commonplace, determining what data must be stored in which country may be easier said than done. Alternatively, should localised data be stored in the country of each Company X subsidiary?
Will the country of incorporation matter or just the country where the relevant office or employee is located? There are no clear answers as matters currently stand. Much will depend on how each jurisdiction drafts its data localisation laws on the issue. Data localisation laws create a significant barrier to companies seeking to expand their international presence. Widespread data localisation will require global service providers to build or rent physical infrastructure in each jurisdiction that requires data localisation.
The associated costs and administration burdens will likely make the provision of many global services currently taken for granted by Internet users impractical. So, in future if AI is integrated into telecommunication technology and the algorithms are set in a manner which enforces data localisation, then there is a high chance that splinternet might become a reality. The onslaught of recent developments demonstrates India will form cyber policy debates.
India occupies a key seat at the information governance table alongside different players just like the EU, China, Russia and also the united states — a foothold the country ought to use to push its interests and people of different equally placed rising economies. For many years, the Indian population has served as an economic resource for foreign, largely U. Localisation laws need organizations to store data at the place wherever they perform their business.
Hence, this impacts the company homes because it creates a barrier to expand their business internationally. Further, so as to expand their operations, they need to form that infrastructure in every place wherever they want to conduct their business and additionally accommodates these laws.
Hence, the costs of administration take issue from place to place and becomes valuable. The splinternet is defined as the fragmentation of internet into smaller sections due to a variety of factors. It is literally the splintering of the internet. What one must keep in mind here is that splinternet is a characterisation which has already started taking place and will result in a global division which would require our immediate attention on an international level.
The important question that comes up here is what must be done in the global technology domain to address these issues? Take a cue from history post World War II which saw the immergence of multilateral treaties and agreements which have successfully addressed a lot of issues till date. Therefore, a need for multilateral governance which will bind countries together to address the international technology domain and upcoming fields like AI will be the most essential step.
Even though there have been instances where these forms of agreements have not worked in the favour of the developing nations as they have been forced to accept conditions that the developed nations have set forth or vetoed. This makes it important under sensitive topics like cyber security that countries feel secure enough to share information and put aside their personal interests for global security.
Compromise and careful diplomacy will have to be exercised for the sake of respect to privacy and personal data. Additionally, these multilateral agreements must give the power of establishing policies and regulations in place to the developing countries so as to make sure they are not side tracked from the negotiations. It is also essential that implementation of these policies and regulations be done with immediate and full effect to benefit from them.
When we talk about splinternet, one must not forget that apart from multilateral governance, data sovereignty of countries will also be affected at home. Businesses and Individuals will face a strong effect of the change and policy of the data protection will also stand to see changes. This act of trying to safeguard the internet and thereby have a control over the people accessing such information is becoming highly preferred. Such a scenario is bound to bring questions on humanitarian grounds and also challenge the sovereignty of the states.
One may say that internet gives the state the right to safeguard and impose its sovereignty, but what will this mean for the world? A splintered global dynamic? The major advantage of this is the greater bandwidth and higher download speeds on all cellular network. It is important to note that multilateral agreements can prove to be very beneficial in developing the technology via products which provide best results. This step is widely applauded and is aiming to address other important initiatives.
Although the recent surge against the multilateral agreements has been about the inefficiencies of these agreements, it is important to note that under circumstances where everyone can benefit from each other, multilateral agreements still remain the preferred mode of negotiations. Conclusively, it is important to have laws in place to protect personal data and it is vital that this data be used in the most ethical way, but to what degree is the question which needs to be addressed.
The data sovereignty policy of every country aims to protect its citizens and businesses from misuse and in doing so establish restrictions which may be hurtful. Space technology has always been an integral part of mankind. Right from satellite communication, to weather reports, to explore the universe, space has always played a very crucial role. But, one can see a considerable difference from the beginning of the space age. Space Activities has consistently been an administrative issue, as it something which was highly required by every individual, and was never seen with a commercial point of view.
However, recently, we can see a move toward commercialization and inevitably toward the privatization of space activity. Lately, there have been numerous developments in the augmentation of space and conflict activity, both on the national and international front. Government-led agencies have achieved amazing things since the Moon landings, but one simply does not have the in-house capacity to address the country's growing requirements.
Today, the space program is not just about civilian applications for remote-sensing, meteorology, and communication, as in the early decades. The space sector and its requirements have grown enormously in the last decade to include television and broadband services, space. More than 30 States have their space programs and various States have procured satellites in orbit.
This makes evident the significant increase in the use of outer space. One can thus observe a clear tendency towards commercialization and even privatization of space activities The privatization of Space is by all accounts an extraordinary thought somewhat.
Public funding isn't the way to genuine advancement. Real space exploration needs a development equipped for delivering income and benefit. This will require private undertakings to venture outside the administrative agreements and assemble a space voyaging revenue industry. The private sector, especially the start-ups stand a great chance in the sector for the exploration of the solar system. They have an advantage in terms of low-cost operations, which proves to be a huge incentive for the government.
Also, a private company can make decisions and fund projects much more efficiently than the government. SpaceX became the first private enterprise, which launched its first successful launch in the year This became a landmark moment for the private space sector. Not very back, Jeff Bezos's Blue origin entered into the game of the private space sector. But there is to be some unintended consequence of privatization of space. Firstly, boosted by cheaper launch prices and new microsatellite technology which has seen devices shrink to the size of a loaf of bread, companies are now launching more and more satellites into space, and that has consequences.
The small area of space around our planet is becoming quite crowded, and the potential for damaging and expensive collisions has increased. Secondly, the accidents of the private satellite. This is not a hypothetical situation but a case of SpaceX, during its testing of Falcon 9. Who will be held liable if the part of the vehicle stops working in outer space? If someone dies in the process? Government is usually not held liable to the same degree as the private enterprise.
Since there is no alternative to the Space program, it is seen that accidents are part of the space program but the same is not so smooth for private enterprise. Overnight they are answerable to stakeholders, government, and many more. According to the outer space treaty, the launch state bears the cost of an accident as the private enterprise is not insured and thus may not be satisfactory.
In this, the burden will all be on the launch state. But this follows some ambiguity as to when the treaty was written, private companies didn't exist. Thirdly, the concern of monopoly. Now, since private companies have entered and in the coming even more will enter, there are high chances of monopoly in the business.
Aforementioned, space activity is much needed by everyone. Right from television. If a monopoly enters the field, there are chances that the basic need will be provided at an extremely high price. It evident that in the upcoming year there will be a lot of hustle in space activities. With a greater number of private enterprises along with government organization, entering the space, it becomes necessary for proper legislation which must be made by the government of the state and enact national space legislation.
The use of space by actors must be regulated. This is extremely important for the environmental protection of space. Some traffic controllers for space must be set-up. Proper regulations must be made by the government for the private entities as well. These regulations must be in accordance with international space law.
Private organizations must be adequately insured and proper framework and jurisdiction are required to address the issue of the accident in case of accident by a private entity. An international body must be formed to ensure the fair and proper functioning of the space activities and to avoid foul-play by the strong parties. A separate Space justice board should be formed to deal with space law.
Privatization of autonomous and augmented systems in space and conflict activities would rupture the development of a Globalised society and lead to accumulation of resources in the hands of a few private players, which might perpetuate an extremely discriminatory environment for any other individual or organisation who might want to venture in the development of application of artificial intelligence in space related activities.
Moreover, the AI so developed will let the private players controlling them have a leverage over the government and the society in general, thus placing them at a higher pedestal than the ruling body of a nation itself. Once AI is fully developed, they would possess vast amounts information in the field of space which would be beyond compare to any other organisation or government.
This would aid the said private organisation to exploit the resources space has to offer in which-ever way they want and reap the benefits for themselves. Opaque privatisation of AI should be stopped at all costs and an inclusive, diverse and an open model of development of AI should be adopted when it comes to space conflicts. If privatisation of such technology is encouraged, the private companies of the countries with the leading technologies in AI might nudge the local governments to invalidate such international conventions lead to the formation of a socially inequitable society which might place a major chunk of the population of the world in the face of harm.
The privatization of the commons is the real tragedy. Beginning with land, water, and genetic code, we move towards the privatization of many abstract things like. Private players make a profit by pushing the cost to the rest of the community. The idea supporting privatization was that the person who owns the property would better care for it. However, this does not seem to be happening at the commercial level. For a company, the ownership and control of the resources can be traded, that too at shorter intervals, profit remains the sole motive.
It also results in a concentration of ownership in the hands of a few big corporates. The atmosphere, the high seas, and Antarctica — have been viewed as globally shared resources. Same principle applied to space, too. This privatization is both an inevitable and positive evolution in many ways, but many judicial pitfalls characterize it. As the international community negotiates to navigate these pitfalls, fairness, international cooperation, and the peaceful development of outer space should always be given the most importance.
Political Repercussions of Privatization of Autonomous and Augmented Systems in Space and Conflict Activities could be — Allowing private control of space resources could launch a new space race, in which wealthy companies, likely from developed countries, could take control of crucial resources. The US, Russia, and China are already developing weapons to defend their space assets in a case when any conflict in space arises. Legal repercussions of the same could be — Advocates are correct that defining property rights is a necessary precursor.
Instead, there is a universe of rights that deserve consideration, which could provide a proper foundation for sustainable development. Today, the most important source of jus ad bellum is the UN Charter. But coming to an international agreement regarding resource sharing would take time, energy, and a widespread willingness to view resources as common assets that should be collectively governed.
All those ingredients are in short supply in a world where many countries are becoming more isolationist. With the emergence of the new space industry and private enterprises like SpaceX, many legal concerns have come into existence. There exists an international framework for space laws such as the Outer Space Treaty.
There is also ample policy regulations at the national level. In India, this sector is being opened for private players recently. However, implementation remains a concern. The defense and national security domain, reserved for the public sector units, is being opened for the private sectors. The management of Antarctica has useful parallels with the regulations of Space.
The entire continent is governed by a treaty that has avoided conflict since its inception in It freezed national territorial claims,. To what extent the future of human civilization be concentrated in the hand of a few Global Tech Giants. Moving towards the trend of deploying autonomous weapons, the United States, U. For example, at the high point of the conflict in Iraq and Afghanistan, the US government employed more than , contractors, which at times exceeded the total number of US military personnel deployed in those two countries.
Policy-makers and scholars have challenged the legal implications of this shift, and many have called for increasing oversight. This privatization and use of autonomous or semi-autonomous weapons has posed new challenges for international humanitarian law. Privatization and use of autonomous or semi-autonomous weapons make the decision-making fragment and diffuse, thereby obscuring the individual accountability.
Accordingly, it will be a core challenge for law and governance in this century to evolve new legal regimes and new liability, oversight and accountability mechanisms to respond to the radically changing face of armed conflict. The main problem is not only the lack of a human agent but also the autonomy or even partial autonomy in the decision-making process, thereby making it hard to hold any one person or group of individuals responsible.
Further, engaging contractors further diffuses the decision-making process. For example, with many remotely operated weapons systems, such as drones, contractors are involved in supplying intelligence that leads to target selection as well as occasionally calling in targets from the ground. Intelligence- gathering plays a key role in determining the target decision itself. A private or non-state actor contractor discombobulates the legal position further. The existing legal doctrine is not equipped to cope with criminal responsibility in the case of automated and outsourced weapons systems.
Only human beings can be held criminally responsible for actions. But in case of automated and outsourced weapons systems, there is no clear human actor who can bear full responsibility. The governments of the United States and the United Kingdom have said that the last human to make a decision regarding the operation of the weapon should be held responsible.
However, this is inadequate, because no one person truly can be said to make that decision. The doctrine of command responsibility allows for seniors in the chain of command to be tried, but that theory is premised on the conception that the human being who actually pulled the trigger could also be tried for the same crime. Yet here there is no human being who can accurately be said to have pulled a trigger.
In particular, increasingly autonomous weaponry and growing privatization tend to spread responsibility for decision-making. Thus, as multiple actors work together to gather intelligence, make targeting decisions, and deploy weapons, the authority and responsibility for decisions involving violence are diffused and fragmented. There should not be complete or excessive privatization of autonomous and augmented systems in space and conflict activities. Further, proper liability mechanisms shall be figured out before we can rely on autonomous and augmented systems.
The development in International space law was seen after the successful launch of Sputnik 1 in Oct , that has been remarkably quickly developed in its initial part. Once the fundamental decision of America and therefore the USSR, to touch upon the international legal order for house activities, not at a bilateral level, however underneath the auspices of the United Nations, it absolutely was clear that this part was supported public law of nations.
So, it failed to return as a surprise that there were 5 international agreements, the space pact of , the Rescue Agreement of , the Liability Convention of , the Registration Convention of , and therefore the Moon Agreement of all were negotiated within the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Space and later adopted as Resolutions by the international organization General Assembly.
The distinction within the range of ratifications simply expresses the various levels of acceptance of those international agreements. However, this part will, no doubt, be characterized because the self-made part of international house law-making conveyance concerning 5 many-sided treaties of rather a profound character.
The growing business and personal space activities need to a bigger extent than ever new national space legislation. In such a case, the launching State bears the danger that an attainable recourse against the personal enterprise might not be satisfactory as a result of the enterprise isn't insured. In such a case, the sole loser of such activity would be the launching State.
It conjointly acknowledges that the Moon Agreement doesn't provide additional steerage on the precise feature of such a world legal order for economic house activities. Rather, the supply of Article 11 by career the Moon and therefore the celestial bodies the common heritage of human beings raises additional queries than it answers them. It is utterly receptive however the construct of the common heritage of human beings is also enforced in observe.
It does, however, suggests or indicate any concrete criteria for the activity of the advantages of either. It is therefore utterly open whether or not the international community can or won't eventually commit to have interaction itself in the least in any economic activity on the Moon or different celestial bodies or whether or not it'll do therefore underneath terribly strict restrictions and extremely severe liability provisions.
There exists a pre-conceived notion that privatization of any sector would result in two inevitable changes, first, being the rise in prices of the services or product of the sector and the second, being the unaccountability from the private company. In recent years to come, we have been given enough reason to alter this preconceived notion. By carefully analysing the legal and political repercussions of the privatization of the autonomous and augmented systems in both space and conflict, we hope to change this pre conceived notion and give practical reasoning a chance to dictate our notions.
At this juncture it is important to understand what the terms autonomous and augmented system stand for. Autonomous intelligence can be understood as the assistive technology which is designed to only aide humans in their task and enhance the output of the same. It is considered as the second tier intelligence and is used to make life easier for individuals.
Whereas on the other hand, augmented intelligence is the most advanced tier of artificial intelligence which is used to do work that humans do. The simplest example of the same is robotics. This field makes use of developmental principles to adapt to the working of the humans and follow through by being able to understand human intelligence.
A rare and still in developing stages, this type of intelligence is the one which we consider as the intelligence with a mind of its own. It is the use of these two systems which will the torch bearers in the years to come. The simplest form of intelligence which precedes both of these is called the assisted intelligence, which merely functions to assist activities that we do by adding a few steps to make things easier.
This type of system is only driven by rules which are pre-defined. Privatization can mean a lot of things, one of the simplest examples are the conversion of government owned enterprises into private sector undertaking, relieving the government participation by either acquiring a majority in the stakeholders or by completely buying out the governmental stakeholders.
However, the term privatization is not so limited, today we call private companies who work towards common goals of the country and its growth which otherwise the government would do so, is also privatization. The question we must address here is the privatization of space. What would be the repercussions of such a step? Firstly, one of the major consequences of privatization of space would be the ability to conduct space activities without having to run them by opposing power or scramble in project power or suffer the chains of bureaucracy.
This advantage benefits all by space activities being conducted in a fruitful way without intervention of government drawbacks and slow attitudes. One may argue at this point that. It is absolutely possible to hold private organisations accountable for their actions and ensure that they are governed in the right manner. Another important repercussion of private space law would be the result of intellectual property rights in the name of the private companies.
However, when private companies create innovations which need to be patented they will need a separate inclusion. Since private companies in space have in recent years proven to make honourable innovations and have succeeded in understanding in a way which is much better than government owned programmes, they deserve to have the goodwill of patents being registered for their work.
After an invitation to join hands with ISRO and the private sector, India aims to build 30 satellites in this joint venture. This initiative has given birth to a lot of private start-ups thereby giving India a chance to explore the space in a new light. When talking about the legal repercussions in space due to privatization, it is easy to believe that a lot of legal issues will need to be amended or discussed in order to privatize the space sector. But it also important to note that these treaties which are in place are quite flexible enough and can be amended to include the new aspects.
It is important to keep in mind that the results from a private space programme are so much more efficient and target based rather than the government owned. Politically, giving the space to a private entity to function gives times to the government to address other issues and let professionals and experts in the fields take over the baton. To conclude, one must take into account what the past has to offer us and not what we believe the future would hold. In recent times, private institutions have proved to be efficient, beneficial, responsible and much more advanced in achieving the latest technology.
The notion that government is the only body which can work for the growth of the country and its citizens is an age-old notion and we must be sure to be practical on this front. The use of AI in corporeal entities has become all the more prevalent with the advent of Machine learning. This means that a major chunk AI software is responsible for conducting the day to day financial activities of some big names in the industry.
This means that there arises a need for a larger role of ethics and liability in such circumstances. Such ethics must be based on the same principles that Richard Stallman stated when speaking of the 4 freedoms of free software. These corporates must provide the freedom to study how the program works.
This becomes essential in determining the scope of the power AI software has in this regard. Such complex algorithms which process data are kept away from public scrutiny and handled as trade secrets. The paralytic nature of such algorithms is very well exemplified in the use of algorithms which represent racially biased results to African American users, for example an algorithm which performs the function of targeted advertisements.
Its not only this but tech giants like Facebook have also been accused of altering public views with the help of social media or painting the government in a favourable light. Which is why it is absolutely necessary for the government to bring such companies under scrutiny and audit and making legislation which penalises the use data by such companies when it comes to socially damaging algorithmic outputs as cited above. The application of AI as a problem-solving tool offers great promise for advancement.
About a third of this group added that ethical risks were a chief concern about AI technology. For example, an automated mortgage loan application system might include computer vision and other tools designed to read handwritten loan applications, analyze the information provided by the applicant, and make an underwriting decision based on parameters programmed into the solution. These technologies do not process such data through an ethical lens—they just process data.
Yet if the mortgage company inadvertently programs the system with goals or parameters that discriminate unfairly based on race, gender, or certain. In contrast, an AI solution with an ethical purpose can include processes that lack integrity or accuracy toward this ethical end.
For example, a company may deploy an AI system with machine learning capabilities to support the ethical goal of non-discriminatory personnel recruiting processes. Such a sample of past performers may include biases based on past hiring characteristics including discriminatory criteria such as gender, race, or ethnicity rather than simply performance. In other words, the machine learns based on the data that it processes, and if the data sample is not representative or accurate, then the lessons it learns from the data will not be accurate and may lead to unethical outcomes.
The CEO, CRO, CCO, and CFO have leadership roles across the first three dimensions, while the fourth dimension relies on leadership from politicians, regulatory agencies, and other policymaking bodies but adequate compliance is required from the corporeal entities. AI ethics is a sweeping endeavor with many moving parts. At the same time, technology aside, the initial approach should follow a similar path as other ethics and compliance programs, including: Start at the top.
The board of directors and senior management set the tone for any ethics and compliance program. Inform top leadership of the use of AI tools across the organization and how AI presents opportunity and risk to the organization. Clearly communicate your intentions. Ethical constructs and mechanisms protect the organization while addressing risks associated with the use of data and technology.
Also consider establishing principles for the use of AI among management, employees, investors, and customers, as applicable to the organization. Assess the risks. AI ethics is as much about understanding the risks as it is about establishing a process for avoiding them. Be clear on what kind of AI solution you are building and who you are building it for.
Identify the processes in the AI life. Give examples. Let product teams know what to look for in monitoring solutions for AI ethics. One way is to embed ethical use of data and technology considerations into IT architecture design similar to the Privacy by Design framework.
Another is to design control structures and embed them into AI enabled solutions. Put up guardrails. Organizations should consider proactively establishing guardrails to guide, monitor, and assess how AI is used by the organization, employees, vendors, and customers. Such guardrails may either be technical or organizational akin to internal controls.
An example of a technical guardrail is a control framework embedded within the design of an AI solution that prevents specific actions from being completed. Another technical guardrail example is the use of explainable and interpretable AI, where the decision-making behind AI enabled solutions is both transparent and explainable. An example of an organizational guardrail is a cross-functional panel that assesses all AI- enabled solutions before they are built similar to an Institutional Review Board and considers the impact of emerging AI ethics-related issues on existing and as-yet implemented AI solutions.
Such a panel should have accountability and a clear charter to drive change and influence decisions across the organization. It is easy to get caught up in the complexity of AI. But starting with the basics can create near- term impact while offering maximum room to learn as you go.
Over time, the organization can integrate the finer nuances of AI ethics as its implications for the organization and stakeholders alike become known. The role of AI is ever increasing in our life. Alexa and Google Nest are present in our bedroom and are listening to all our conversations.
Facebook knows all our social activities, likes, and dislikes. It lacked transparency. No one except the company knows the process of appointment and the duties and role of the committee. For the government institutions, public sector companies, universities, and hospitals, one knows whose interest is primarily served; but this is not so for the private companies. A three-tier structure could be created with a committee at the departmental level, an oversight committee at the organizational level and a regulatory body at the level of the government.
Independent intellectuals, philosophers, and people from varied backgrounds could be made a member of these committees. The scope of the AI Ethics Board extends to four broad areas. Firstly, guiding leadership to establish policies and procedures regarding AI ethics and setting up training programs. Secondly, examining proposals for AI research and maintain the repository.
Thirdly, auditing the use and proposed use of AI and data. And finally, to handle any complaints regarding the use of AI or its associated data. Develop public trust as well as the trust of the employee in AI products and services Public consultations on AI align the goal of the company with the public interest. Self-regulate the company for possible future AI regulation 2. Cost and time incurred in setting up and managing the board.
The compliance time will further hamper the rapidly changing and developing field of AI. Lack of transparency may lead to ineffective public accountability. On the other hand, to be publicly accountable, the board might release some data in public domain. This might give sensitive information in the hands of competitors. Risk of shifting the burden rather than fixing accountability.
Finding appropriate members to the board who have a good understanding of both the AI technology as well as of the business and its related legal and human resource issues will be a challenge. Since AI is a rapidly evolving field, it will be very advantageous to collaborate, with others working in AI ethics, including competitors. Membership of cross-industry AI ethics groups should be considered to benefit people and society.
The problem is, the Big Tech companies think themselves to be good people trying to help, and they believe they are doing their best. They also need to be under the regulatory oversight of the government. However, the regulation cannot be done without the collaboration of the Tech companies. They are the one who has all the information and the resources. In the world of constant development, the field of technology has a rapid growth over centuries.
Starting with computers to machines and now to robots, the event has evolved and is now on the verge of replacing simple human activity. The most recent in this innovation is Artificial intelligence AI. Artificial intelligence has always been a topic of interest for many people around the world. Many scientists and engineers around the world have been working for. With this development, A. Many scientists around the world have a prognosis that A.
It can even be used for solving complex challenges of the world like climate change. It is believed that if A. But by fantasizing by the world of Artificial intelligence we must not forget to look at the legal and ethical issue that is arising with the rapidly growing technology.
The most famous and asked question is, who will be held liable in the accident caused by a self- driven car. It is a famous example of the USA, where Uber's automated car, accidentally killed a year-old lady. Although AI is developed, to perform a minute task with great precision, but it cannot be denied that sometimes AI may fail. Is there any recourse available to the victim? Who shall be held liable? Obviously, not the machine, who itself can't judge its action. A debate has been going around.
Some are of the view; the programmer should be liable or the manufacturer while some say the technical team monitoring the car. Undoubtedly, with the rapid growth of AI, they are no more a device only. They are matching the status of humans and some even call then non-human entities. In that case what are the rights given to them? Would they be considered the same as corporations or companies?
Every organization has an ethics board that governs the ethical aspect of the company. So every organization must create a strong AI-ethics board which can govern the framework on the designing and working and sponsoring research on algorithm bias.
It will also increase transparency as to how the application is used and will contribute to the responsible development of AI. Governance for AI Ethics- there are always some unintentional consequences of AI which can pose risk to the organization. An organization can work on to identify future potential risk and implement proper governance that reduces the hurdle and delay. To work on fairness and biasness- the organization can work on what biasness may exist in data and make sure AI product is not discriminatory and are safe.
A mechanism for recourse- Organization employing AI should work on the easy-to-go recourse when the system fails to meet the user expectation like setting up a technical team, internal governance AI ethics committee , and external governance.
The whole purpose of the AI ethic board is to make sure that the AI algorithm works fairly and there is no discrimination in the data. But a recent debate of AI ethics board might come to a surprise. Google removed its ethics board soon after its establishment. Academician Ben Wagner said after that ethics board is just ethics washing, a plan, to avoid government regulations. The ethics body lacks proper regulating framework and transparency. According to specialists, the board is not capable of making changes but can only give suggestions.
There has been a great rush toward this without understanding the mechanism of ethical codes. A very big example is IBM. The company used an ethical dataset to remove the biasness from its facial recognition system. They were used by the Philippines police force, where thousands were killed in a brutal war on drugs. Interest in ethical algorithms doesn't stop companies from assisting deeply unethical causes.
The experience with the AI ethics board does not mean that we need to completely scrap it, but it requires a proper framework upon it working and which can be done analyzing all the factors and working upon that. Steps made to regulate AI, has to be global. The technologies being developed by Google, Facebook, Amazon, and others will be deployed worldwide, and decisions made in America and Europe will affect more than just them.
The challenge now is finding crossovers between existing legislation and the negative impact of new technology. Then, new legislation needs to be drafted to fill the gaps. Technology is ever-growing and every day we are faced with new challenges and opportunities that as a society we must alter to fit our humanity and secure it enough to avoid injustice and misuse.
In the wake of a need for machines and electronic assistance in almost all aspects of life, we are advancing in our use of artificial intelligence aiming for AI to have human intelligence along with capabilities faster than humans. Over the last 50 years, AI has changed drastically from a computational discipline into a highly trans disciplinary one that incorporates many different areas Embodied Artificial Intelligence, Embodied AI is one of the different branches that AI research has shifted onto.
A simple definition of the same could be the physical existence or corporeal identity given to AI. It is a prerequisite to understand that as we advance into the field, the classical approach to AI is limited and therefore there is a need for embodied AI, a concept first presented by Rodney Brooks in Embodied AI works on the principle that living beings mature and derive their intelligence from their surroundings as they interact through their physical existence.
It was only right to use this dynamism to refurbish AI which will help in gaining the human intelligence and work at par with living beings. Robotics is the simple answer we are looking at, it is the embodied AI and the existence of corporeal entities with the advent of artificial intelligence. This gave way for engineers as well as neuroscientists, linguists, biologists, biomechanics, and material scientists to be associated with embodied AI. To better comprehend goals of embodied AI, can be summarised into three basic functions:.
However, this is not the end to this branch of study of AI. Research and study of robots moves into smaller specialisation into Development robotics, Bio-robotics and even Artificial Life. Embodied artificial intelligence is a much more advanced area and perhaps cannot be referred to as AI anymore, rather robotics or embodied AI. Thereby, raising some complicated questions in regards to the society and the human interaction.
It also gave a pathway for robots to function like humans and thus bringing up specific areas of work. Developing robots to behave in a certain way is one of the most integral aspects, while study and research is still being conducted in this field, it is necessary that robots walk, talk or have locomotive movements similar to that of humans.
Their understanding and ability to showcase facial expressions for instance is also a huge factor. Since the prime aim is for robots to gain higher level of intelligence, it makes it necessary for robots to have intelligence related to emotions, reasoning, aptitude, common sense and even consciousness. This dictates the need to bring the concept of evolution into play, human beings of today are by products of years of evolution, and do we expect that kind of evolution in robots?
Studies in this area prove that we need developmental perspective which the robots should be able to comprehend and adjust accordingly. Lastly, there shall exist challenges about moving into the real world, once all of the above have been dealt with.
Here, studies into the field required the expertise of body dynamics to function. Cembra Money Bank AG. Azimut Holding SpA. Genesis Energy Ltd. Hutchison Port Holdings Trust. In seeking to track the Index, the Fund invests in dividend-paying small-cap companies in the developed world excluding the U. Sankyo Co. Matsui Securities Co. DIC Corp. Mitsubishi Materials Corp. Nippon Paper Industries Co.
Skylark Holdings Co. Yokohama Rubber Co. Nippon Electric Glass Co. Canon Marketing Japan, Inc. Toyota Boshoku Corp. In seeking to track the Index, the Fund invests in dividend-paying small-cap companies in the Japanese equity market. Additionally, small-cap companies faced additional pressures during the fiscal period when compared to their larger peers, particularly during the fourth quarter of as the broad market correction was catalyzed by trade war apprehension with China and a global economic slowdown.
During the fiscal year, natural disasters in Japan also had an adverse effect on the Japanese equity market and overall economy. Table of Contents Description of Indexes unaudited. Below are descriptions of each Index referenced in this report:. Australasia and Japan. The MSCI Europe Index is a free float-adjusted market capitalization index that is designed to measure the performance of large- and mid-cap stocks within developed market European countries.
The WisdomTree Europe Quality Dividend Growth Index is a fundamentally weighted index that measures the performance of dividend-paying common stocks with growth characteristics selected from the WisdomTree International Equity Index.
The WisdomTree International Dividend ex-Financials Index is comprised of high dividend-yielding international stocks outside the financial sector. The WisdomTree International Equity Index is comprised of dividend-paying companies in the industrialized world, excluding Canada and the United States.
The WisdomTree International LargeCap Dividend Index is comprised of the large-capitalization segment of the dividend-paying market in the industrialized world outside the U. The WisdomTree International MidCap Dividend Index is comprised of the mid-capitalization segment of the dividend-paying market in the industrialized world outside the U.
The WisdomTree International Quality Dividend Growth Index is a fundamentally weighted index designed to provide exposure to dividend paying developed market companies. The WisdomTree International SmallCap Dividend Index is comprised of the small-capitalization segment of the dividend-paying market in the industrialized world outside the U. Table of Contents Description of Indexes unaudited concluded. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Neither MSCI nor any other party involved in or related to compiling, computing or creating the MSCI data makes any express or implied warranties or representations with respect to such data or the results to be obtained by the use thereof , and all such parties hereby expressly disclaim all warranties of originality, accuracy, completeness, merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose with respect to any such data.
Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall MSCI, any of its affiliates or any third party involved in or related to compiling, computing or creating the data have any liability for any direct, indirect, special, punitive, consequential or any other damages including lost profits even if notified of the possibility of such damages. WisdomTree Investments, Inc. WisdomTree Investments is the licensor of certain trademarks, service marks and trade names of the Funds. WisdomTree Investments has no obligation to take the needs of the Funds or the owners of shares of the Funds into consideration in determining, composing, or calculating the underlying WisdomTree Indexes of the applicable Funds.
WisdomTree Investments is not responsible for, and has not participated in, the determination of the timing of, prices of, or quantities of shares of the Funds to be issued or in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the shares of the Funds are redeemable. WisdomTree and the Funds do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, or performance of the underlying Indexes or the data included therein and shall have no liability in connection with the underlying Indexes or their calculation.
Index performance information assumes the reinvestment of dividends and excludes management fees, transaction costs and expenses. You cannot directly invest in an index. Table of Contents Schedule of Investments. Lenzing AG. Porr AG a. Voestalpine AG. Melexis N. Umicore S.
DNA Oyj. Huhtamaki Oyj a. Neste Oyj a. Nokian Renkaat Oyj. Wartsila Oyj Abp. Altran Technologies S. Cie Plastic Omnium S. Eurazeo SE. Faurecia S. Hermes International. Iliad S. Ipsen S. Rubis SCA. SEB S. Thales S. Valeo S. Beiersdorf AG. Continental AG. Fielmann AG. Fuchs Petrolub SE. Hamburger Hafen und Logistik AG. Hugo Boss AG. Infineon Technologies AG. Sixt SE.
Symrise AG. TUI AG. Wacker Chemie AG. Glanbia PLC. Kingspan Group PLC. Anima Holding SpA b. Brembo SpA. DiaSorin SpA. Ferrari N. Maire Tecnimont SpA. Recordati SpA. Salvatore Ferragamo SpA. ASM International N. Corbion N. GrandVision N. Koninklijke DSM N. Koninklijke Vopak N. See Notes to Financial Statements. Table of Contents Schedule of Investments continued. TKH Group N. Wolters Kluwer N. Borregaard ASA. Entra ASA b. Grieg Seafood ASA.
Norsk Hydro ASA. Salmar ASA. Telenor ASA. Veidekke ASA. Yara International ASA. Amadeus IT Group S. Atresmedia Corp. Ence Energia y Celulosa S. Grifols S. Prosegur Cash S. Prosegur Cia de Seguridad S. Zardoya Otis S. AAK AB. Electrolux AB Series B. Evolution Gaming Group AB b. Hexpol AB. Indutrade AB. Intrum AB a. JM AB a. Nobia AB. Sandvik AB. Thule Group AB b. Cie Financiere Richemont S. Registered Shares.
Givaudan S. Logitech International S. Oriflame Holding AG. Partners Group Holding AG. Roche Holding AG Genusschein. SGS S. Vifor Pharma AG. Ashmore Group PLC. Ashtead Group PLC. Barratt Developments PLC. Beazley PLC. Bellway PLC. Carnival PLC.
Cineworld Group PLC. Computacenter PLC. Croda International PLC. Dunelm Group PLC. Electrocomponents PLC. Ferrexpo PLC. Fevertree Drinks PLC. Fresnillo PLC. Halma PLC. Hargreaves Lansdown PLC. Hays PLC. Table of Contents Schedule of Investments concluded.
International Consolidated Airlines Group S. Johnson Matthey PLC. Mondi PLC. Next PLC. Pagegroup PLC. Redrow PLC. Renishaw PLC. Rentokil Initial PLC. Rightmove PLC. Rotork PLC. Savills PLC. Segro PLC. Softcat PLC. Superdry PLC. Synthomer PLC. Telecom Plus PLC. Non-income producing security. This security is exempt from registration under rule A of the Securities Act of This security may be sold in transactions that are exempt from registration, normally to qualified institutional buyers.
The total market value of the collateral includes non-cash U. Palfinger AG. Bekaert S. Econocom Group S. Euronav N. Greenyard N. Kinepolis Group N. Ontex Group N. Orange Belgium S. Recticel S. Aktia Bank Oyj. Citycon Oyj a. Cramo Oyj. Finnair Oyj.
Kemira Oyj. Lehto Group Oyj a. Ramirent Oyj. Rovio Entertainment Oyj b. Sanoma Oyj. Tikkurila Oyj. Tokmanni Group Corp. Uponor Oyj. YIT Oyj a. Akka Technologies. Albioma S. Beneteau S. Bonduelle SCA. Chargeurs S. Coface S. Derichebourg S. Europcar Mobility Group b. Interparfums S. Jacquet Metal Service S. Maisons du Monde S. Mersen S. Neopost S. Nexans S. Oeneo S. Rallye S. Tarkett S. Television Francaise 1.
BayWa AG. Bilfinger SE. CompuGroup Medical SE. CropEnergies AG. Deutz AG. Elmos Semiconductor AG. Encavis AG. Indus Holding AG. Jenoptik AG. MLP SE. OHB SE. Pfeiffer Vacuum Technology AG. Sixt Leasing SE. Takkt AG. Vossloh AG. Wacker Neuson SE. Washtec AG. Grafton Group PLC. Greencore Group PLC. Hostelworld Group PLC b.
Origin Enterprises PLC. Total Produce PLC a. Aquafil SpA. Ascopiave SpA. Banca Farmafactoring SpA b. Biesse SpA. BPER Banca a. Brunello Cucinelli SpA. Cairo Communication SpA. Cementir Holding SpA. Cerved Group SpA. Credito Emiliano SpA. Datalogic SpA. SpA a. Emak SpA a. Enav SpA b. Esprinet SpA. Falck Renewables SpA. Gamenet Group SpA b. Geox SpA a. Gima TT SpA a b. Gruppo MutuiOnline SpA. La Doria SpA. Reply SpA. Salini Impregilo SpA a.
Societa Cattolica di Assicurazioni SC. Technogym SpA b. Zignago Vetro SpA. Accell Group N. Amsterdam Commodities N. Arcadis N. Beter Bed Holding N. BinckBank N. Brunel International N. ForFarmers N. Intertrust N. Kendrion N. Koninklijke Volkerwessels N. PostNL N. SIF Holding N.
Sligro Food Group N. American Shipping Co. Hexagon Composites ASA. Kongsberg Gruppen ASA. Ocean Yield ASA a. Sbanken ASA b. Scatec Solar ASA b. Selvaag Bolig ASA. SpareBank 1 Nord Norge. SpareBank 1 SMN a. Sparebanken Vest. Semapa-Sociedade de Investimento e Gestao. Almirall S. Applus Services S. Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles S. Ercros S. Euskaltel S. Faes Farma S. Fluidra S. Obrascon Huarte Lain S. Sacyr S. Talgo S. Tecnicas Reunidas S. Acando AB.
Alimak Group AB a b. Ambea AB a b. Attendo AB b. Avanza Bank Holding AB. Beijer Ref AB. Biotage AB. Bravida Holding AB b. Bufab AB. Bulten AB. Byggmax Group AB a. Catena AB. Duni AB. Dustin Group AB b. Fagerhult AB a. Global Gaming AB a. Granges AB. Hemfosa Fastigheter AB.
By practicing social distancing and taking aggressive action now, the state is working to mitigate the spread of coronavirus so we reduce the risk that our health care system becomes overwhelmed. This is about saving lives.
In Michigan, the wide-ranging order also covers cafes, coffee houses, taverns, brewpubs, distilleries, clubs, indoor and outdoor performance venues, gymnasiums, fitness centers, recreation centers, indoor sports facilities, indoor exercise facilities, exercise studios and spas. Businesses can still offer food and beverages through delivery, window, walk-up, drive-through or drive-up service. Restaurants can allow five people inside at a time to pick up orders, as long as they stay six feet away from each other.
I also want to remind everyone to continue doing everything they can at an individual level to protect themselves and their families, like washing their hands and practicing social distancing. We will get through this together. The Detroit Symphony Orchestra has cancelled concerts and the Ann Arbor Film Festival will not take place this month as originally scheduled. Michigan State University has cancelled face-to-face classes and moved to online instruction for the rest of the semester.
A man known to police is facing new charges in relation to the robbery of a bank in downtown Windsor on Saturday afternoon. Police learned that a lone male suspect had entered the bank premises and given a note to an employee. The note contained instructions to hand over money. The robber obtained a quantity of cash, then left the bank on foot. Police were able to quickly identify a suspect.
He was located around 6 p. Upon his arrest, the man was searched and found to be in possession of a small quantity of heroin. Cody Carrington, 31, of no fixed address, has been charged with robbery and possession of a controlled substance. His past crimes have included robbing a store with a knife when he was 18, breaking into homes and assaulting a resident, and taking part in the confinement and torture of a woman.
When Carrington was sentenced for break-and-entering in , he told the court that he was giving up his life of crime — which has been fuelled by drug addiction. Ontario Court Justice Lloyd Dean noted at the time that Carrington had been before him repeatedly since Carrington was a youth.
Anyone with more information is encouraged to call ext. Anonymous tips can be made via Crime Stoppers at or www. We regret any inconvenience this will cause and ask you to please bear with us as we take measures to protect our staff and the general public. Should you require assistance you can find a complete list of contacts at: windsorstar. Local fitness fanatics are having to find new ways to workout — thanks to widespread closure of gyms due to coronavirus containment efforts.
Members who paid in full will have the expiry dates on their memberships extended in accordance with the length of time that the gyms remain closed. GoodLife and Fit4Less employees will continue to be paid for the next two weeks to help lessen the financial burden of being out of work. The company is currently developing online home-fitness options, to be viewable at www.
Independent gyms and fitness businesses have been dealing with the COVID situation in different ways. In Quebec, the provincial government has order closure of all gyms, pools, cinemas, bars and more. The slow introduction of local pot shops is finally igniting, with four stores in the application pipeline. The most advanced, J. Supply Co. Victor Anastasiadis added that the opening might be delayed if final inspections are held up due to coronavirus concerns.
And on Tuesday, city council will render its opinion on the location being proposed for Shinybud Cannabis Co. Kaschak said by legalizing cannabis use, the federal government has removed any expectation that council should make a moral judgment on a cannabis store. Cannabis stores have been slow to come to Windsor. None of the first 25 Ontario-wide businesses selected a year ago by lottery wanted to locate here.
Kirk Anastasiadis, a London resident, was one of the 42 businesses selected in the second round and he announced last summer he wanted to open his store in downtown Windsor. City of Windsor administration opposed that location, in a move that drew criticism and caused council to change the process so it would be councillors — not administrators — who would oppose or support future applications. With the J. An included assessment by the Windsor Police Service points to possible problems with loitering and traffic congestion in an already congested area.
The Tecumseh Road location has no school nearby, but it does have stores selling cigarettes and beer metres away, as well as an LCBO within metres, which the health unit has concerns about. The deadline to oppose or support the location is March 19, which is why council is holding a special meeting to debate the issue Tuesday.
Lakeshore recently changed its mind about retail pot stores. It had originally opted out but council voted in December to opt in. The Sessions Windsor and Shinybud stores applied to locate in Windsor after the Ford government opened up the Ontario marketplace beyond the lottery winners.
Even more shops are expected. For example, Toronto-based Mihi Cannabis , has said its expansion plans include a Windsor store. People who want to give their opinion to council on the cannabis store location are being asked to consider providing their comments in writing to the Office of the City Clerk. Diplomats and flight crews are also exempted. There will be no restrictions on trade and commerce, though only four airports Montreal, Toronto, Calgary, Vancouver will be open for U.
We know the ethic and discipline the U. Volpe said a real danger to the supply chain is if the car market crashes as it did in China and now Europe. They automakers are going to build cars as long as they can. Spacing between workers on the plant floor has been increased where possible and the APMA has created a platform listing best practices for its membership. Companies are banning travel, encouraging self-screening if employees have travelled and self-isolation. Manufacturing facilities are also being sanitized more vigorously, especially shared surfaces.
Employees are being encouraged to work from home if possible. Unifor national president Jerry Dias released a statement asking for employers to be flexible with such uncertain times ahead. These steps are vital to protecting Canadians and minimizing hardship on workers and their families. Carroccia said bail hearings are necessary and will be accommodated via video and audio technology or in person. According to the Ontario Court of Justice website, all Provincial Offences Act matters, such as disputed traffic tickets, scheduled from March 16 to April 3 will be adjourned and rescheduled to a later date.
Notices of new court dates will be mailed to those involved. Criminal courts remain open, however those facing charges who are not in custody who have a criminal court appearance scheduled in Ontario Court of Justice between March 16 and April 3 do not need to attend court. Cases will be adjourned to a future date approximately 10 weeks later, according to the website. In addition, family courts remain open, but non-urgent matters, including trials, will be rescheduled as well.
Urgent matters pertaining to safety and security for children and support arrears will proceed on a prioritized basis. Where possible, these cases will be heard by telephone or video conferencing. Carroccia said an announcement had not yet been made for the Superior Court of Justice but a teleconference is scheduled for Tuesday at 1 p. Chief Justice Geoffrey Morawetz of the Ontario Superior Court of Justice announced Friday that civil and criminal jury trials are cancelled for the time being.
The announcement affects several high-profile jury trials in Windsor that were set to get underway later this month: the second-degree murder trial of Habibullah Ahmadi for the Ganatchio Trail attack of senior Sara Ann Widholm; the first-degree murder trial of William Green for the shooting death of Mickey Homberg-Chaplin and the drug conspiracy trial of a local pair linked to a fentanyl lab in China. There is no access to or from the new centre from the main hospital.
All access is from the entrance off Goyeau Street. Most had already spoken to their primary care providers, Telehealth Ontario, or the Windsor-Essex County Health Unit before visiting the assessment centre, she said. According to the local health unit, 62 individuals had been tested, with 13 of those tested awaiting results. Starting Tuesday, all patients, visitors, employees and professional staff arriving at Windsor Regional Hospital will be assessed for potential COVID before permitted entry.
Hours will be expanded if warranted by demand. Operating the clinic are five nurses, one physician, a housekeeper, as well as clerks and security staff. Assessment centres help to limit the impact new viruses have on health-care systems, she said. Upon entry to the assessment centre, patients check in with security and are asked to take a number. From there, they are given protective gear in the waiting room. A member of the clinical team then assesses them in an examination room where they are checked for symptoms such as dry cough, fever and shortness of breath.
That includes having specific symptoms, and having come in contact with someone with a presumed or positive case or having recently travelled out of the country. The test involves taking a sample from the back of the nasal cavity with a swab. The swab is then sent to the Public Health Ontario lab where results are usually known within 24 hours. The hospital encourages people to first check with their primary care provider, the health unit, or Telehealth if they think they have contracted the virus before attending the assessment centre.
Starting Tuesday, Windsor Regional Hospital will limit entrances at both campuses and enforce screening of all individuals entering its facilities. Visitors may only access the Ouellette campus from the main entrance off Goyeau Street, the third level hallway from the parking garage, and the regular emergency department entrance. Patients attending for dialysis at the Bell building can enter from the east side main entrance. Patients coming to the Jeanne Mance building can continue to use the east entrance.
Visitors to the Met campus may enter from the east side doors off the Lens Avenue main entrance. The regular entrances to the Cancer Centre and the emergency department will still be open. Those entering hospital facilities will be asked by staff why they have come and will be checked for fever, cough, shortness of breath, sore throat, and running nose. They will also be asked about recent travel history, contact with someone who has travelled to an impacted area and is sick, and contact with a probable of confirmed case of COVID Patients who have any of the aforementioned symptoms will be asked to wear a mask and use hand sanitizer before being taken to their appointments.
Those under the age of 18 not attending for their own medical needs will not be allowed into the hospital. Some non-urgent clinic visits for patients who are currently well will be cancelled and rebooked for a later date. Although surgeries will continue as planned for now, the hospital says elective surgeries may be cancelled in the near future. Two people are facing charges after an OPP canine unit helped track them down in the Lakeshore area last week.
Officers found the vehicle on the near County Road It had been abandoned in the westbound lanes of the highway with no lights on — a major hazard to live traffic. Police learned that the vehicle had previously been involved in a collision in a different jurisdiction, and that it had fled the scene to head west on Highway According to police, Maximus tracked a scent from the vehicle on the highway to a nearby farm property, and then to an outbuilding on the farm.
The OPP canine located two people hiding in the building. With the Ontario government officially declaring a state of emergency due to the coronavirus, the Windsor-Essex County Health Unit is reiterating its request that residents be considerate about the supplies they purchase. Earlier on Tuesday, Ontario Premier Doug Ford announced State of Emergency orders including the closure of all bars and restaurants in the province — except for takeout and delivery options — until at least March The limit on public gatherings is now 50 people.
Airbus SE. The ten largest holdings are subject to change, and there are no guarantees the Fund will remain invested in any particular company. Excludes derivatives and investment of cash collateral for securities on loan if any. In seeking to track the Index, the Fund invests in dividend-paying companies with growth characteristics in the European equity market.
The Fund generally uses a representative sampling strategy to achieve its investment objective, meaning it generally will invest in a sample of securities in the Index. The Fund returned The U. Much of this quality outperformance came from the broad market correction in the fourth quarter of which was catalyzed by trade war apprehensions, ongoing BREXIT negotiations, and economic slowdown in the region. However, during the first quarter of , there has been a strong rebound as markets began to stabilize.
Shareholder Expense Example. Fund NAV Returns. Fund Market Price Returns. Investment Company. Gaztransport Et Technigaz S. BE Semiconductor Industries N. Enav SpA. Peab AB. Saras SpA. Tieto Oyj. Inmarsat PLC. In seeking to track the Index, the Fund invests in dividend-paying small-cap companies in the European equity market.
Additionally, small-cap companies faced additional pressures during the fiscal period when compared to their larger peers, particularly as the broad market correction was catalyzed by trade war apprehensions, ongoing BREXIT negotiations, and economic slowdown in the region. Telstra Corp. Endesa S.
Snam SpA. Imperial Brands PLC. Iberdrola S. National Grid PLC. Swisscom AG, Registered Shares. In seeking to track the Index, the Fund invests in high-dividend-yielding companies in the developed world excluding the U. Federal Reserve policy misstep sent global markets sharply downward. Represents less than 0. Novartis AG, Registered Shares.
China Mobile Ltd. Nestle S. BP PLC. Anheuser-Busch InBev S. In seeking to track the Index, the Fund invests in dividend-paying companies in the developed world excluding the U. WisdomTree International Equity Index. The market and the Fund both underperformed during the fourth quarter of , where a broad market correction catalyzed by trade war apprehension with China and fears of a U. In seeking to track the Index, the Fund invests in dividend-paying large-cap companies in the developed world excluding the U.
Fortescue Metals Group Ltd. Mowi ASA. Hannover Rueck SE. Persimmon PLC. Power Assets Holdings Ltd. Evraz PLC. Ferrovial S. Telefonica Deutschland Holding AG. Carrefour S. In seeking to track the Index, the Fund invests in dividend-paying mid-cap companies in the developed world excluding the U. Fund returns were brought down particularly during the fourth quarter of , where a broad market correction catalyzed by trade war apprehension with China and fears of a U.
ON SE. Allianz SE, Registered Shares. Zurich Insurance Group AG. Compass Group PLC. The Fund returned 1. During the fiscal period, the Fund utilized forward foreign currency contracts to offset applicable international currency exposure from positions in international equities. Additionally, exposure and tilts to value, quality, momentum, and correlation factors provided outperformance over the fiscal period. Much of this quality outperformance came from the broad market correction in the fourth quarter of which was catalyzed by trade war apprehensions, ongoing BREXIT negotiations, and global economic slowdown.
Tokyo Electron Ltd. Safran S. CSL Ltd. Astellas Pharma, Inc. WisdomTree Asset Management, Inc. StarHub Ltd. Delek Group Ltd. Austevoll Seafood ASA. Cembra Money Bank AG. Azimut Holding SpA. Genesis Energy Ltd. Hutchison Port Holdings Trust. In seeking to track the Index, the Fund invests in dividend-paying small-cap companies in the developed world excluding the U.
Sankyo Co. Matsui Securities Co. DIC Corp. Mitsubishi Materials Corp. Nippon Paper Industries Co. Skylark Holdings Co. Yokohama Rubber Co. Nippon Electric Glass Co. Canon Marketing Japan, Inc. Toyota Boshoku Corp. In seeking to track the Index, the Fund invests in dividend-paying small-cap companies in the Japanese equity market.
Additionally, small-cap companies faced additional pressures during the fiscal period when compared to their larger peers, particularly during the fourth quarter of as the broad market correction was catalyzed by trade war apprehension with China and a global economic slowdown.
During the fiscal year, natural disasters in Japan also had an adverse effect on the Japanese equity market and overall economy. Table of Contents Description of Indexes unaudited. Below are descriptions of each Index referenced in this report:. Australasia and Japan.
The MSCI Europe Index is a free float-adjusted market capitalization index that is designed to measure the performance of large- and mid-cap stocks within developed market European countries. The WisdomTree Europe Quality Dividend Growth Index is a fundamentally weighted index that measures the performance of dividend-paying common stocks with growth characteristics selected from the WisdomTree International Equity Index. The WisdomTree International Dividend ex-Financials Index is comprised of high dividend-yielding international stocks outside the financial sector.
The WisdomTree International Equity Index is comprised of dividend-paying companies in the industrialized world, excluding Canada and the United States. The WisdomTree International LargeCap Dividend Index is comprised of the large-capitalization segment of the dividend-paying market in the industrialized world outside the U. The WisdomTree International MidCap Dividend Index is comprised of the mid-capitalization segment of the dividend-paying market in the industrialized world outside the U.
The WisdomTree International Quality Dividend Growth Index is a fundamentally weighted index designed to provide exposure to dividend paying developed market companies. The WisdomTree International SmallCap Dividend Index is comprised of the small-capitalization segment of the dividend-paying market in the industrialized world outside the U. Table of Contents Description of Indexes unaudited concluded. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Neither MSCI nor any other party involved in or related to compiling, computing or creating the MSCI data makes any express or implied warranties or representations with respect to such data or the results to be obtained by the use thereof , and all such parties hereby expressly disclaim all warranties of originality, accuracy, completeness, merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose with respect to any such data.
Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall MSCI, any of its affiliates or any third party involved in or related to compiling, computing or creating the data have any liability for any direct, indirect, special, punitive, consequential or any other damages including lost profits even if notified of the possibility of such damages. WisdomTree Investments, Inc. WisdomTree Investments is the licensor of certain trademarks, service marks and trade names of the Funds.
WisdomTree Investments has no obligation to take the needs of the Funds or the owners of shares of the Funds into consideration in determining, composing, or calculating the underlying WisdomTree Indexes of the applicable Funds. WisdomTree Investments is not responsible for, and has not participated in, the determination of the timing of, prices of, or quantities of shares of the Funds to be issued or in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the shares of the Funds are redeemable.
WisdomTree and the Funds do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, or performance of the underlying Indexes or the data included therein and shall have no liability in connection with the underlying Indexes or their calculation. Index performance information assumes the reinvestment of dividends and excludes management fees, transaction costs and expenses. You cannot directly invest in an index. Table of Contents Schedule of Investments. Lenzing AG.
Porr AG a. Voestalpine AG. Melexis N. Umicore S. DNA Oyj. Huhtamaki Oyj a. Neste Oyj a. Nokian Renkaat Oyj. Wartsila Oyj Abp. Altran Technologies S. Cie Plastic Omnium S. Eurazeo SE. Faurecia S. Hermes International. Iliad S. Ipsen S. Rubis SCA. SEB S. Thales S. Valeo S. Beiersdorf AG. Continental AG. Fielmann AG. Fuchs Petrolub SE. Hamburger Hafen und Logistik AG. Hugo Boss AG. Infineon Technologies AG. Sixt SE. Symrise AG. TUI AG. Wacker Chemie AG. Glanbia PLC. Kingspan Group PLC. Anima Holding SpA b.
Brembo SpA. DiaSorin SpA. Ferrari N. Maire Tecnimont SpA. Recordati SpA. Salvatore Ferragamo SpA. ASM International N. Corbion N. GrandVision N. Koninklijke DSM N. Koninklijke Vopak N. See Notes to Financial Statements. Table of Contents Schedule of Investments continued. TKH Group N. Wolters Kluwer N. Borregaard ASA. Entra ASA b. Grieg Seafood ASA. Norsk Hydro ASA. Salmar ASA. Telenor ASA. Veidekke ASA. Yara International ASA. Amadeus IT Group S. Atresmedia Corp.
Ence Energia y Celulosa S. Grifols S. Prosegur Cash S. Prosegur Cia de Seguridad S. Zardoya Otis S. AAK AB. Electrolux AB Series B. Evolution Gaming Group AB b. Hexpol AB. Indutrade AB. Intrum AB a. JM AB a. Nobia AB. Sandvik AB. Thule Group AB b. Cie Financiere Richemont S. Registered Shares. Givaudan S. Logitech International S. Oriflame Holding AG. Partners Group Holding AG. Roche Holding AG Genusschein. SGS S. Vifor Pharma AG. Ashmore Group PLC. Ashtead Group PLC.
Barratt Developments PLC. Beazley PLC. Bellway PLC. Carnival PLC. Cineworld Group PLC. Computacenter PLC. Croda International PLC. Dunelm Group PLC. Electrocomponents PLC. Ferrexpo PLC. Fevertree Drinks PLC. Fresnillo PLC. Halma PLC. Hargreaves Lansdown PLC. Hays PLC.
Table of Contents Schedule of Investments concluded. International Consolidated Airlines Group S. Johnson Matthey PLC. Mondi PLC. Next PLC. Pagegroup PLC. Redrow PLC. Renishaw PLC. Rentokil Initial PLC. Rightmove PLC. Rotork PLC. Savills PLC. Segro PLC. Softcat PLC. Superdry PLC. Synthomer PLC. Telecom Plus PLC. Non-income producing security. This security is exempt from registration under rule A of the Securities Act of This security may be sold in transactions that are exempt from registration, normally to qualified institutional buyers.
The total market value of the collateral includes non-cash U. Palfinger AG. Bekaert S. Econocom Group S. Euronav N. Greenyard N. Kinepolis Group N. Ontex Group N. Orange Belgium S. Recticel S. Aktia Bank Oyj. Citycon Oyj a. Cramo Oyj. Finnair Oyj. Kemira Oyj. Lehto Group Oyj a. Ramirent Oyj. Rovio Entertainment Oyj b. Sanoma Oyj. Tikkurila Oyj. Tokmanni Group Corp. Uponor Oyj. YIT Oyj a.
Akka Technologies. Albioma S. Beneteau S. Bonduelle SCA. Chargeurs S. Coface S. Derichebourg S. Europcar Mobility Group b. Interparfums S. Jacquet Metal Service S. Maisons du Monde S. Mersen S. Neopost S. Nexans S. Oeneo S. Rallye S. Tarkett S. Television Francaise 1.
BayWa AG. Bilfinger SE. CompuGroup Medical SE. CropEnergies AG. Deutz AG. Elmos Semiconductor AG. Encavis AG. Indus Holding AG. Jenoptik AG. MLP SE. OHB SE. Pfeiffer Vacuum Technology AG. Sixt Leasing SE. Takkt AG. Vossloh AG. Wacker Neuson SE. Washtec AG. Grafton Group PLC. Greencore Group PLC. Hostelworld Group PLC b.
Origin Enterprises PLC. Total Produce PLC a. Aquafil SpA. Ascopiave SpA. Banca Farmafactoring SpA b. Biesse SpA. BPER Banca a. Brunello Cucinelli SpA. Cairo Communication SpA. Cementir Holding SpA. Cerved Group SpA. Credito Emiliano SpA.
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